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Quality Leaders

There are a few people in every age who produce new, paradigm-shifting ideas. Sometimes these ideas don't catch on right away, but as time passes, their worth becomes more evident.when changes in technology, e.g. railroads and telegraph, changed our economy quite dramatically, and at the same time changed the discipline of management. We don't really have much perspective yet. Without it, it's hard to say what ideas will endure, and who the real pioneers will turn out to be.

Joseph M. Juran
Braila, Romania. December, 1904. The threadbare Jakob Juran family welcomes a newborn son, Joseph Moses. Five years later Jakob leaves Romania for America. By 1912, he has earned enough to bring the rest of the family to join him in Minnesota.
Young Joseph Juran demonstrates his affinity for knowledge; in school, his level of mathematical and scientific proficiency so exceeds the average that he eventually skips the equivalent of four grade levels. In 1920, he enrolls at the University of Minnesota, By 1925, he had received a B.S. in electrical engineering.In 1926, a team of Quality Control pioneers from Bell Laboratories brought a new program to Hawthorne Works. The program, designed to implement new tools and techniques, required a training program. From a group of 20 trainees, Juran became one of two engineers for the Inspection Statistical Department, one of the first of such divisions created in American industry.By 1937, Juran was the chief of Industrial Engineering at Western Electric's home office in New York. His work involved visiting other companies and discussing methods of quality management. Juran finally left Washington in 1945, but he didn't return to Western Electric. Rather, he chose to devote the remainder of his life to the study of quality management.As early as 1928, Juran had written a pamphlet entitled "Statistical Methods Applied to Manufacturing Problems." By the end of the war, he was a well-known and highly-regarded statistician and industrial engineering theorist. After he left Western Electric, Juran became Chairman of the Department of Administrative Engineering at New York University, where he taught for many years. His classic book, the Quality Control Handbook, first released in 1951, is still the standard reference work for quality managers. The Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers invited Dr. Juran to Japan, to teach them the principles of quality management as they rebuilt their economy. Along with W. Edwards Deming, his more colorful and perhaps better-known American colleague, Juran received Second Order of the Sacred Treasure award from Emperor Hirohito of Japan. Dr. Juran published his lectures from Japan in his book Managerial Breakthrough in 1964. In 1979, Juran founded The Juran Institute to better facilitate broader exposure of his ideas. The Juran Institute is today one of the leading quality management consultancies in the world, and it produces books, workbooks, videos and other materials to support the wide use of Dr. Juran's methods. The institute and the consulting practice continues to thrive today. Dr. Juran worked to promote quality management into his 90's, and only recently retired from his semi-public life. One can obtain the papers, lectures, and tapes of Dr. Juran from The Juran Institute or other quality management educational providers. The Juran Foundation, which he founded, continues his work, exploring the social and industrial implications of quality improvement while making his and others' valuable contributions more accessible.

W. Edwards Deming

W. Edwards Deming was widely accepted as the world’s preeminent authority on quality management prior to his death on December 24,1994. Deming gained credibility because of his influence on Japanese products were of better quality than U.S. products, U.S, managers were surprised to learn that Japanese had learned quality improvement from W.E.Deming, an American. In fact, the Japanese still use the original lectures given by Deming to train new generations of businesspeople.
Although Deming is best known for his emphasis on the management of a system for improving quality, his thinking was based on the use of statistics for continual improvement.
In the 1920, Deming worked in the Western Elecric Hawthrone plant. Trained in engineering and mathematical physics at the University of Woming and Yale University, he came to know Walter Shewhart who influenced his thinking about improving quality through the use of statistics.
After working at the Hawthrone plant, Deming worked inn government jobs with the U.S Department of Agriculture and the Bureau of the Census where he helped develop statistical sampling techniques. During World War II he worked with U.S defense contractors to use statistics to identify systematic quality problems occurring within the defense-related products.
After the war, Deming was sent to Japan by the U.S. Secretary of War to work on a population census. During this time, the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers asked him to provide lectures on statistical quality control applications. While in Japan, Deming became impressed by the precision and single-mindedness with which the Japanese pursued quality improvement. Late in his life, Deming commented that he had consulted around the world and had found that Japan’s commitment to quality was unparalleled. In his mind, this unwavering pursuit of quality improvement was the genius of the Japanese people. When the United States discovered that it was lagging the Japanese in quality, large corporations such as General Motors and Ford hired Deming to help them develop quality management programs. However, many American firs lacked the long-term commitment exhibited by the Japanese.
Towards the end of his career, Deming gave seminars, wrote books, taught classes, and published articles to explain his approach to quality management. This led to wide dissemination of the Deming approach to quality. In part, because of the lack of focus in America, the results have been somewhat mixed.
Deming stressed that consumers were served by insisting that service and product providers deliver high quality. He believed that the more consumers demanded high quality products and services, the more firms would continually aspire to higher levels of performance. In fact, this has happened in the United States.

Deming’s 14 Points for Management1. Create constancy of purpose.

2. Adopt a new philosophy.
3. Cease mass inspection.
4. End awarding business on the basis of price tag
5. Constantly improve the system.
6. Institute training on the job
7. Improve leadership.
8  Drive out fear.

9. Break down barriers between departments .
10. Eliminate slogans.
11. Eliminate work standards.
12. Remove barriers to pride.
13. Institute education and self-improvement.
14. Put everybody to work.

Deming outlined deadly diseases that he felt would keep the United States or any other country from achieving top quality and competitiveness in a world market. These deadly diseases are:

 Lack of constancy purpose.

 Emphasis on short-term profits.
 Evaluation of performance, merit rating, or annual review
 Mobility of management.
 Running a company visible figures alone.
 Excessive medical costs for employee health care.
 Excessive costs of warrantee.

Kaoru Ishikawa
Kaoru Ishikawa, PhD, studied under Deming, Juran, and Feigenbaum. He borrowed the total quality control concept and adapted it for Japanese. In addition, he authored SPC texts in Japanese and in English. Ishikawa is best known for the development of the cause and effect diagram, which is sometimes called Ishikawa diagram. He developed the quality circle concept in Japan, whereby work groups, including their supervisor, were trained in SPC concepts. The groups then met to identify and solve quality problems in their work environments.

The Basic Tools of Quality
Ishikawa was a great believer in training. In fact, under his guidance, training was a key component of the mission of Japanese Union of Scientists Engineers (JUSE), including statistical quality control training. Perhaps Ishikawa’s greatest achievement was the development and dissemination of the basic seven tools of quality (B7). As the developer of these tools, Ishikawa is credited with democratizing statistics. Although statistical quality control had hitherto been the domain of specialized statisticians, Ishikawa felt that to be successful, firms must make everyone responsible for statistical analysis and interpretation.

Ishikawa’s Quality Philosophy
Ishikawa spent his life working to improve quality in Japan. His ideas were synthesized into 11 points that made up his quality philosophy shown in table 2.3. Every firm that pursues quality improvement uses his tools. By democratizing statistics, he allowed for the complete involvement of the workforce in improving quality and performance.
1.Quality begins with education and ends with education.

2.The first step in quality is to know the requirements of the customer.
3.The ideal state of quality control is when inspection is no longer necessary.
4.Remove the root causes, not the symptoms.
 5.Quality control is the responsibility of all workers and all divisions.
6. Do not confuse the means with the objectives.
7. Put quality first and set your sights on long-term objectives.

8. Marketing is the entrance and exists of quality.
9.Top management must not show anger when facts are presented to subordinates.
10.Ninety-five percent of the problems in a company can be solved by the seven tools of quality control.
11. Data without dispersion information are false data

Armand V. Feigenbaum
Armand V. Feigenbaum, PhD, argues that total quality control is necessary to achieve productivity, market penetration, and competitive advantage. Quality begins by identifying the customer’s requirements and end’s with a product or service in the hands of a satisfied customer. In addition to customer satisfaction, some of Feigenbaum’s quality principles are genuine management involvement, employee involvement, first-line supervision leadership, and company-wide quality control. In 1951, he authored Total Quality Control.

Feigenbuam Theory

Feigenbaum proposes a three-step process to improving quality.
These steps involve:
Quality leadership,
Quality technology, and
Organizational commitment.
The 19 Steps of TQC

1.Total quality control is defined as a system of improvement.
2.Big Q quality (company-wide commitment to TQC) is more important than little q quality (improvements on the production line)
3.Control is a management tool with four steps.
4.Quality control requires integration of uncoordinated activities
5.Quality increases profits.
6.Quality is expected, not desired.
7.Humans affect quality.
8.TQC applies to all products and services.
9. Quality is a total life-cycle consideration.
10. Control the process.

11. A total quality system involves the entire company-wide operating work structure.
12. There are many operating and financial benefits of quality.
13. There are many operating and financial benefits of quality.
14. Organize for quality control.
15. Managers are quality facilitators, not quality cops.
16. Strive for continuous commitment.
17. Use statistical tools.
18. Automation is not a panacea.
19. Control quality at the source

Phllip B. Crosby
Phllip B. Crosby authored his first book, Quality is Free, in 1979, which was translated into 15 languages. It sold 1.5 million copies and changed the way management looked at quality. He argued that “doing it right the first time” is less expensive than the costs of detecting and correcting nonconformities. In 1984, he authored Quality Without Tears, which contained his four absolutes of quality management. These absolutes are: quality is conformance to requirements, prevention of nonconformance is the objective not appraisal, the performance standard is zero defects not “that’s close enough,” and the measurement of quality is the cost of nonconformance.

Crosby 14 points
1.Make it clear that management is committed to quality.
2.Form quality improvement teams with representatives from each department.
3.Determine how to measure where current and potential quality programs lie.
4.Evaluate the cost of quality and explain its use as a management tool.
5.Raise the quality awareness and personal concern of all employees.
6.Take formal actions to correct problems identified through previous steps.
7.Establish a committee for the zero defects problem.
8.Train all employees to actively carry out their part of the quality improvement program.

9.Hold a “zero-defects day” to let all employees realize that there has been a change.
10.Encourage individuals to establish improvement goals for themselves and their groups.
11.Encourage employees to communicate to management the obstacles they face in attaining their improvement goals.
12.Recognize and appreciate those who participate.
13.Establish quality councils to communicate on a regular basis.
14. Do it all over again.

Genichi Taguchi

The Taguchi method was first introduced by Dr. Genichi Taguchi to AT&T Bell Laboratories in the United States in 1980. Because of its increased acceptance and utilization, the Taguchi method for improving quality is now commonly believed to be comparable in importance to the Deming approach and to the Ishikawa concept of total quality control.

The Taguchi method provides
1- A basis for determining the functional relationship between controllable product or service design factors    and the outcomes of a process.
2- A method for adjusting the mean of a process by optimizing controllable variables
3- A procedure for examining the relationship between noise in the process and product or service variability.
 Among the unique aspects of the Taguchi method are:
1- Definition of quality,

2- The quality loss function (QLF), and
3- The concept of robust design.

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